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What Are Indian Rice Varieties and Their Salient Features?

Rice is one of the world’s most essential staple foods. Exploring rice information and gaining knowledge about rice is very important.

Welcome to the rice knowledge blog! Here you will find a wealth of information about rice varieties, Indian basmati rice and non-basmati rice cultivation, and factors considered while choosing rice varieties.

Cultivation of Basmati Rice

Basmati cultivation in India is an important agricultural practice. It is mainly grown in the north Indian states of Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and parts of Jammu Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Basmati rice requires specific geographical and climatic conditions, such as fertile soil, a warm climate, and an adequate water supply for cultivation.

Farmers use traditional procedures and present-day techniques to cultivate basmati rice. Farmers follow a careful water supply system to maintain the correct water level in the fields during various stages of rice crop growth.

Additionally, different varieties of basmati rice are cultivated, and each variety has its unique characteristics in terms of aroma, texture, grain size, and flavor. Once basmati rice crops get harvested, rice is dried, processed, and packed for domestic consumption and exported to other countries.

Cultivation of Non-Basmati Rice

The cultivation of non-basmati rice in India is widespread and forms a significant portion of the country’s rice production. Non-basmati rice varieties vary in terms of taste, texture, and aroma compared to premium basmati rice. Farmers across various states, such as West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha, among others, cultivate non-basmati rice due to its higher yield and suitability for different agro-climatic conditions. It plays a crucial role in ensuring food security and meeting the domestic demand for different rice varieties in India.

rice varieties


Here are some essential climate requirements for rice varieties cultivation in India:

Temperature:. The ideal climatic temperature for rice ranges from 25°C to 35°C during the crop-growing season.

Rainfall: Ample water availability is important for rice crop cultivation. It requires yearly rainfall of around 1000-2500 mm, with well-distributed rain showers during the monsoon months (June to September)

Soil Type: Rice can be cultivated in different varieties of soils, but it mainly prefers well-drained, fertile lands with good water retention value. Clayey or loamy soils suits for rice cultivation.

Rice-Grown Seasons: Main rice-growing season months in India are the Kharif season (June to September) and the Rabi season months  (November to April). The choice of rice varieties and their cultivation practices can vary based on these seasons.

Let’s explore the varieties of rice in India and their processing procedure

SNoRice TypeStateRice Varieties
1Basmati RawHaryanaPusa Raw, PR 47 Raw, Sugandha Raw, 1718 Raw, 1121 Basmati Raw, PR – 11 / 14 Raw, Sharbati Raw,
2Basmati RawPunjab1121 Basmati Raw, Pusa Raw
3Basmati SteamHaryana1509 Basmati Steam, Pusa 1401 Steam, 1121 Basmati Steam, Sugandha Steam, PR 47 Steam, 1718 Basmati Steam, PR 11/14 Steam, 1401 Basmati Steam, Sharbati Steam.
4Basmati SteamPunjabPR – 11/14 Steam New, 1718 Basmati Steam, Sharbati Steam, 1121 Basmati Steam, Mogra 1121, Sugandha steam, Dubar 1121, 1401 Basmati Steam, Tibar 1121, 1509 Basmati Steam.
5Basmati SteamUttar PradeshSharbati Steam
6Basmati SellaHaryana1718 Golden Sella, 1121 Basmati Golden Sella, Sharbati Sella, 1401 Basmati Golden, 1718 White Sella, 1121 Basmati White Sella, Pusa 1401 Golden Sella, 1401 Basmati White Sella, PR – 11/14 Golden Sella, Pusa 1401 White Sella, PR 47 Golden Sella, 1509 Basmati Golden Sella, PR – 11 / 14 Sella, Sugandha Golden Sella, PR 47 Sella, 1509 Basmati White Sella, Sharbati Golden Sella, Sugandha Sella  
7Basmati SellaPunjab1401 Basmati Golden Sella, 1121 Basmati Golden Sella, Pusa White Sella, 1509 Basmati Golden Sella, 1121 Basmati White Sella, Sharbati White Sella, 1509 Basmati White Sella, RH 10 White Sella, Sughandha Sella, 1718 Basmati Golden Sella, PR – 11/14 Sella, 1401 Basmati White Sella, 1718 Basmati White Sella, PR – 11/14 Golden Sella.  
S NoRice TypeStateRice Varieties
1Non Basmati RiceAndhra PradeshPure BPT Raw New, NLR BPT Raw New, Swarna Raw 5% Broken Fresh Milling, IR 64 Raw 5% Broken Fresh Milling, Swarna Raw 5% Broken Rice to Rice, 100% Raw Broken,  
2Non Basmati RiceBiharSona Raw, Katarni Raw, Parmal Raw.  
3Non Basmati RiceChhattisgarhIR- 64 Raw 5% Broken Rice to Rice, RB Gold 5% Raw, Swarna Raw New, 5%Broken Fresh Milling
4Non Basmati RiceGujaratIR 64 Raw 5% Broken, Shree RamWada, Kolam Raw Rice, IR 64 Raw 5% Broken Fresh Milling, 100% Raw Broken.
5Non-Basmati RiceKarnatakaSona Masuri Raw, RNR Raw New, Sona Masuri Raw.
6Non-Basmati RiceKeralaKaima Rice
7Non-Basmati RiceKolkataSwarna Raw 100% Broken, Swarna Raw 5% Broken Fresh Milling, Gobind Bhog Raw New, Gobind Bhog Raw Old, 100% Raw Rejection Rice.  
8Non-Basmati RiceMadhya PradeshSwarna Raw 5 % Broken
9Non-Basmati RiceMaharashtraIR 64 – 100% Broken Raw Rice Milling, Samba Masoori Raw, HMT Raw Old, IR 64 – 5% Broken Raw Rice, BPT Raw Old, HMT Raw New, Kolam Raw Old, BPT Raw New, Wada Kolam Raw Rice, Kolam Raw New, JSR Raw Old, Swarna Raw 5% Broken, BPT Raw New, Kolam Raw New.
10Non-Basmati RiceOdisha & North EastSwarna Double Boiled, Swarna Single Boiled, IR 64 Parboiled 5% Broken, IR 64 Raw 5% Broken.
11Non-Basmati RiceTamil NaduSeerga Samba
12Non-Basmati RiceTelanganaBPT Raw New, JSR Raw Old, Kolam Raw New, Samba Masoori Raw, HMT Raw Old, BPT Raw Old .  
13Non-Basmati RiceUttar PradeshSwarna Raw 5% Broken HMT Raw
S NoRice TypeStateRice Varieties
1Non-Basmati SteamAndhra PradeshNon BPT Steam NLR Sona Steam New HMT Steam GR-11 Steam Pure BPT Steam
2Non- Basmati SteamBiharSona Steam
3Non- Basmati SteamKarnatakaSona Masuri Raw RNR Raw New Sona Masuri Raw
4Non- Basmati SteamMaharashtraBPT Steam Kolam Steam Rupali Steam
5Non- Basmati SteamTamil NaduRajabhogam Ponni Steam
6Non- Basmati SteamTelanganaBPT Steam New Kolam Steam New HMT Steam JSR Steam RNR Steam
7Non- Basmati SteamUttar PradeshSona Masuri Steam  
S.NoRice TypeStateRice Varieties
1Non-Basmati ParboiledAndhra PradeshIdly Rice ADT-37 Parboiled, Swarna Half Boiled, Jaya Parboiled, Non BPT Parboiled, IR-64 Parboiled, HMT Parboiled, GR-11 Parboiled, Kuruva Parboiled, Idly Parboiled, Rejected Rice Parboiled, Jaya Parboiled.
2Non- Basmati ParboiledBiharMansoori Parboiled, Katarni Parboiled.
3Non-Basmati ParboiledGujaratIr-8 Parboiled 5% Broken IR-64 Parboiled 5% Broken
3Non-Basmati ParboiledChhattisgarhIR-64 Parboiled 5% Broken Paddy Milling
4Non-Basmati ParboiledKarnataka  Rose Matta, RNR Boiled, Sona Ponni Half Boiled, Sona Full Boiled
5Non-Basmati ParboiledKeralaThanjavur Ponni, Matta Short Grain, Matta Long Grain
6Non-Basmati ParboiledKolkataSwarna Parboiled 100% Broken Swarna Parboiled 5% Broken 1010 Parboiled Basmati Parboiled IR-64 Parboiled 100% Broken Ratna IR-64 Parboiled 5% Miniket
7Non- Basmati ParboiledMaharashtraIR-64 Parboiled 100% Broken IR-64 Parboiled 5% Broken BPT Boiled
8Non-Basmati ParboiledTamil Nadu12Month Old Raj bhog Karnataka Ponni Boiled ADT 45 Parboiled New Thanjavur Ponni Boiled, HMT Boiled 1 Year Old HMT Boiled BPT Ponni
9Non-Basmati ParboiledOdishaIR-64 Parboiled 5% Broken Swarna Double Boiled 5% Broken Swarna Single Boiled 5% Broken

Points to be checked while buying rice

Chalkiness Percentage

The opaque portion found in the rice grain is the chalky portion. Rice chalkiness measurement methods are mainly based on naked-eye observation or area-based 2D image analysis and using the milled rice kernel as the material


The whiteness meter gives accurate rice whiteness values. Just place the whiteness meter on the rice and read the value. Brown rice shows 20 and well-milled rice shows 40.

Discolor and Damage of Rice

The grains may be infected by various organisms before or after harvesting causing discoloration, also harvest season and locality will change the color of grains. Rice damage caused due to insects.

Broken Rice

Paddy rice produces around 50% whole rice, 16% broken rice, 20 % husk, and 14% bran and meal.

Moisture Content of Rice

Moisture content before milled will be 12 to 14 % and further reduced to 9% after the milling procedure.

Rice Grain Sizes

Rice grain sizes are classified as short-grain, medium-grain, and long-grain based on their length and width ratio when cooked.

S NoBasmati Rice TypeRice Size (As per 2022 Crop)
11121 Basmati Rice8.35 mm
21718 Basmati Rice8.35 mm
31509 Basmati Rice8.40 mm
41401 Basmati Rice7.70 mm
5Pusa Basmati Rice7.45 mm
6Traditional Basmati Rice7.25 mm
7Sugandha Basmati Rice7.90 mm
8Sharbati Non-Basmati Rice7.10 mm
9PR 11/14 Non-Basmati Rice6.90 mm
10Parmal Non-Basmati Rice6.40 mm

Non-Basmati Rice < 6mm

RNR – 5.2 mm

Sona Masuri -5.2 mm to 5.5 mm

Swarna -5.5 mm

IR64 – 5.8mm to 6mm

Rice is a symbol of cultural identity and an economic source for many nations. Understanding its significance is very important and developing a prosperous future for both rice-dependent countries and the global food system is essential.